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Distribution of Minimal and Maximal Values of the Location of the Centre of Pressure in the Frontal and Sagittal Planes in Healthy Boys and Boys with Mild Intellectual Disability Participating in 12-Week Equestrian Classes

Distribution of Minimal and Maximal Values of the Location of the Centre of Pressure in the Frontal and Sagittal Planes in Healthy Boys and Boys with Mild Intellectual Disability Participating in 12-Week Equestrian Classes

Anna Mazur-Rylska, Ph.D.
University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Assoc. Prof. Tadeusz Ambroży, Ph.D.
University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Assoc. Prof. Dariusz Mucha, Ph.D.
University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Jarosław Omorczyk, Ph.D.
University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Dorota Ambroży, Ph.D.
University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Wioletta Mikuľáková, Ph.D.
University of Prešov in Prešov, Slovak Republic

Assoc. Prof. Stanisław Gulak, Ph.D.
Podhale State College of Applied Sciences in Nowy Targ, Poland

Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis, Ph.D.
University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland

Lucia Kendrová, Ph.D.
University of Prešov in Prešov, Slovak Republic

Dawid Mucha, B.A.
University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Humans maintain balance in the vertical position through random movements that result from instability of the body supported in two points. These tracking movements are responsible for the motor activity focused on maintaining body balance. The role of the postural control system is to choose a strategy, that is, the behaviour as a response to stimuli and regaining the balance through coordinated activity of the muscles that stabilize the talocrural and hip joints that perform movements in the frontal and sagittal planes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of equestrian classes on postural balance in the frontal and sagittal balance in healthy boys aged 15 to 17 years and boys at the same age with mild intellectual disability. The study examined 100 randomized boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability and healthy boys. The study participants were divided into two groups: experimental group, who participated for 12 weeks in equestrian classes and the control group, with boys attending outdoor or indoor physical education classes. Before and after completion of the study, both experimental and control groups were diagnosed by means of Accu SwayPlus force plate. Maximum and minimum locations of the position of the centre of pressure (COP) with respect to the base of support on the platform were evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes. The description of the parameters was based on the arithmetic mean, maximal and minimal value, scatter diagram and percentage distribution of values. Correlation of the parameters was also evaluated. Significant changes were found in the experimental groups after horse-riding classes, which pointed to the improvement in balance response, particularly in the sagittal plane, both in terms of minimal and maximal values. The character of these changes was similar: value of body sway in the sagittal plane was reduced and the higher percentage of minimal values was recorded for each parameter in both planes after the equestrian effect. Correlations were found between maximum position of the centre of pressure (COP) in the frontal plane and minimal and maximal position of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane. All the significant changes and trends found for the experimental group which occurred after 12 weeks of equestrian classes suggest improved parameters of balance. The lack of changes in balance parameters in the control group shows that the equestrian classes help develop balance abilities in healthy boys aged 15 to 17 years and, to a lesser extent, in those with mild intellectual disability.
Article history
Received: 08.01.2017 Accepted 03.02.2017

Key words
stabilographic parameters, balance, horse riding, mild intellectual disability, correlation

10.24356/SD/21/5